Creato da: diegobaratono il 02/05/2008
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SCOPERTI I GEROGLIFICI PIU' ANTICHI

Post n°1420 pubblicato il 22 Giugno 2017 da diegobaratono

DA: "news.yale.edu"

Yale archaeologists discover earliest monumental Egyptian hieroglyphs


The newly discovered panel of signs 

features images of a bull’s head 

on a short pole followed by two 

back-to-back saddlebill storks 

with a bald ibis bird above and 

between them. This arrangement 

of symbols is common in later 

Egyptian representations of the 

solar cycle and with the concept 

of luminosity.                           

A joint Yale and Royal Museums of Art and History (Brussels) expedition to explore the the ancient Egyptian city of Elkab has uncovered some previously unknown rock inscriptions, which include the earliest monumental hieroglyphs dating back around 5,200 years.

These new inscriptions were not previously recorded by any expedition and are of great significance in the history of the ancient Egyptian writing systems, according to Egyptologist John Coleman Darnell, professor in Yale's Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at Yale, who co-directs the Elkab Desert Survey Project.

“This newly discovered rock art site of El-Khawy preserves some of the earliest — and largest — signs from the formative stages of the hieroglyphic script and provides evidence for how the ancient Egyptians invented their unique writing system,” says Darnell.

The researchers also discovered rock art depicting a herd of elephants that was carved between 4,000-3,500 B.C.E. One of the elephants has a little elephant inside of it, which, according to Darnell, “is an incredibly rare way of representing a pregnant female animal.”

Yale Egyptologist John Darnell examines the hieroglyphs from atop a tall scaffold.

The archaeologists also identified a panel of four signs, created circa 3,250 B.C.E. and written right to left — the dominant writing direction in later Egyptian texts — portraying animal images of a bull’s head on a short pole followed by two back-to-back saddlebill storks with a bald ibis bird above and between them. The arrangement of symbols is common in later Egyptian representations of the solar cycle and with the concept of luminosity. “These images may express the concept of royal authority over the ordered cosmos,” says Darnell.

Darnell says that the team was “absolutely flabbergasted” by the find because of the immense size of not just the individual tableaus, but the individual elements as well.

“This discovery isn’t new in the sense that this is the first time that anyone has seen these hieroglyphs; this is the first time that anyone has seen them on such a massive scale. These individual hieroglyphs each measure just over a half meter in height, and the entire tableau is about 70 centimeters (27.5 inches) in height. Previously found signs were only one or two centimeters in size,” says Darnell.

He continues: “In the modern world this would be akin to seeing smaller text on your computer screen and then suddenly seeing very large ones made the same way only on a billboard.”

The area where the researchers located the inscriptions is in the northern desert hinterland of Elkab. This area, along with Hierakonpolis, located across the river and known as its twin city, were very important centers in ancient Egypt, says Darnell, and demonstrate that the communicative system in these areas is not limited to the more commonly found small tokens or labels.

Darnell explains that these discoveries reveal that there was not a slow development of writing primarily for bureaucratic use as previously believed, but that hieroglyphic writing was more geographically widespread and topically diverse at the time of or shortly after its development.

“This also suggests that there is a much more expansive use of the early writing system than is indicated from other surviving archaeological material,” says Darnell.

The site of the inscriptions is near two important cities in ancient Egypt.

The team of archaeologists located these rock inscriptions by mapping out routes based on road networks in Egypt. Most rock inscriptions in Egypt that Darnell has seen, he says, are not randomly placed: Most inscriptions are located along major roads, either roads that parallel the Nile or roads that head out into the desert. They are usually at a juncture or crossroads. “Any place where someone might pause in their journey,” says Darnell.

Using a new recording technique pioneered at Yale, Darnell and Alberto Urcia, a digital archaeologist and associate research scientist in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, created a series of 3D images of the inscriptions from photographs taken in the field.

“This new technology makes it possible to record sites at a level of accuracy and detail that was absolutely impossible before,” says Darnell, adding, “It also means that we can record the site as a place, or a location, and not just as a series of inscriptions.”

“This was not what I was expecting to find when I set out on this period of work on the expedition,” says Darnell. “It was completely shocking to me.”

The team members this season also include Colleen Darnell, Egyptologist and curatorial affiliate, Yale Peabody Museum; Massimilliano Montanari, digital archaeology and 3D modeling specialist; and Elizabeth Hines ’17 and Reed Morgan ’17.

The expedition, which was directed by Darnell and Dirk Huyge, was undertaken in cooperation with the Ministry of Antiquities and the Aswan and Edfu inspectorates.


 
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I CONSIGLI DI STEPHEN HAWKING

Post n°1419 pubblicato il 22 Giugno 2017 da diegobaratono

DA: "livescience.com"


Humanity should focus its efforts on exploring other worlds that we might inhabit, and to get there, Earthlings may need to ride on a beam of light, famed physicist Stephen Hawking says.

 
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NUOVA SCOPERTA IN NUBIA

Post n°1418 pubblicato il 21 Giugno 2017 da diegobaratono

DA: "egitalloyd.blogspot.it"


New Discovery, Nubia: Ancient Tomb of Gold Worker Found Along Nile River

Posted: 21 Jun 2017 02:32 AM PDT

A 3,400-year-old tomb holding the remains of more than a dozen possibly mummified people has been discovered on Sai Island, along the Nile River in northern Sudan.

Archaeologists discovered the tomb in 2015, though it wasn't until 2017 that a team with the Across Borders archaeological research project fully excavated the site.

The island is part of an ancient land known as Nubia that Egypt controlled 3,400 years ago. The Egyptians built settlements and fortifications throughout Nubia, including on Sai Island, which had a settlement and a gold mine. 

The tomb, which contains multiple chambers, appears to hold the remains of Egyptians who lived in or near that settlement and worked in gold production.

The artifacts found in the tomb include scarabs (a type of amulet widely used in Egypt), ceramic vessels, a gold ring, the remains of gold funerary masks worn by the deceased and a small stone sculpture known as a shabti. 

The ancient Egyptians believed that shabtis could do the work of the deceased for them in the afterlife. Some of the artifacts bore Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions that revealed the tomb was originally created for a man named Khnummose, who was a "master gold worker."

The remains of Khnummose (which may have been mummified) were found next to those of a woman who may have been his wife. Some of the other people found in tomb may have been relatives of Khnummose, the researchers said, adding that they planned to conduct DNA analyses of the remains.

"We will try to extract ancient DNA from the [bones] of the bodies in question," said Julia Budka, professor for Egyptian Archaeology and Art History at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. "If the [ancient] DNA is preserved, this will help us a lot. 

Otherwise, it all remains tentative," said Budka, who noted that the samples are already at the Department for Archaeogenetics at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.

The archaeologists said they aren't sure how many of the bodies were mummified.

"The state of preservation is very difficult here," Budka said. "I am waiting for the report of my physical anthropologists. For now, the position and also traces of bitumen speak for some kind of mummification for all persons in Tomb 26 who were placed in wooden coffins." 

Bitumen is a type of petroleum that the ancient Egyptians sometimes used in mummification.

Many of the coffins are also poorly preserved, and it's uncertain exactly how many of the people were buried in coffins, Budka said.

News, Giza: Tutankhamun Artifacts Moved to Grand Egyptian Museum Ahead of Soft Opening in 2018

Posted: 20 Jun 2017 03:10 AM PDT

Zidan During Restoration on The Oars
Mummified dates, grains and small model boats were among the objects moved in this most recent batch, an operation that required careful packing and essential restoration work. Written By/ Nevine El-Aref.

Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities has transported another batch of items from the Tutankhamun collection to their new home at the Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM) overlooking the Giza Plateau.

The ancient Egyptian artifacts were moved on Sunday from their current location at the Egyptian Museum in downtown Cairo to the GEM ahead of its soft opening in early 2018.

Tarek Tawfik, supervisor general of the GEM, said the new batch of artifacts includes dried and mummified seeds and fruits, as well as several model boats crafted from wood and a small wooden chair painted in white plaster.

Prior to the move, the objects were subjected to essential restoration work, courtesty of the GEM's First Aid Restoration department.

Eissa Zidan, the department's director, said the artifacts – including dried dates, onions, garlic, wheat, barely and doum – were all transported safely.

He said that the restoration staff used scientific methods to pack and transport the items. They also compiled a detailed report on the current condition of all items prior to the move. Zidan said the objects would undergo further restoration at the GEM.

The GEM is due to open in April 2018, with two areas accessible to the public: a large hall containing the entire Tutankhamun collection; and the Grand Staircase collection of major objects and statues from Ancient Egypt.

The process of transporting items from Downtown to the GEM started in the summer of 2016, while the transfer of the Tutankhamun collection began earlier this year.

 
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IN PERU' UN VERO VULCANO FINTO

Post n°1417 pubblicato il 21 Giugno 2017 da diegobaratono

DA: "livescience.com"


QUANDO L'UOMO CERCA D'IMITARE LA NATURA. IN PERU' SI E' CERCATO DI CAPIRE QUANDO E PERCHE' SIA STATO COSTRUITO QUESTO VULCANO A FORMA PIRAMIDALE. PERPLESSI GLI STUDIOSI: DIFFICILE AL MOMENTO FORNIRE RISPOSTE ACCETTABILI. "EL VOLCAN" SI TROVA NELLA VALLE DI NEPENA SULLA COSTA PERUVIANA. ECCO IL LINK: 


 
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EGIZI ANTICHI: LA LORO ORIGINE E' DA RICERCARSI A LEVANTE E NON IN AFRICA...

Post n°1416 pubblicato il 13 Giugno 2017 da diegobaratono

DA: "egitalloyd.blogspot.com"


QUESTA E' BELLA: RECENTI STUDI APPARENTEMENTE HANNO RILEVATO CHE GLI EGIZI ANTICHI SONO DA RITENERE UNA POPOLAZIONE PIU' LEVANTINA CHE NON AFRICANA TOUT COURT. LA COSA HA EVIDENTEMENTE INFIAMMATO IL DIBATTITO TRA GLI EGITTOLOGI... BUONA LETTURA. ECCO IL LINK

 

 
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