With the emergence of water conservation, reclamation, and reutilization in the United States, gray water has taken on greater significance.What is Gray Water?Gray water is wastewater from domestic, industrial and commercial facilities that does not contain sanitary wastes or food-related wastes.Where does it come from?It can come from bathtubs, showers, bathroom sinks and washing machines. Generally any water source other than toilets in your home or business can be considered gray water.Is gray water harmful?Yes. If not handled properly, gray water can pose a risk to public health and the environment. It’s important to understand that gray water can contain harmful bacteria, viruses, and chemicals.What’s the benefit of gray water?Gray water is generally an excellent source of reclaimable water.
Once properly treated, the water can be reutilized for landscape irrigation, wash water for vehicles, potential water for cooling towers, toilets, urinals, and many other uses.Regulations and ratings:There are many new and proposed regulations that will mandate the use of gray water for achieving “green” building, recycling and energy-reduction objectives. Such programs include the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System.LEED is a nationally accepted benchmark developed by the U.S. Green Building council that provides third-party verification for the design, construction and operation of high-performance green buildings.The intent is to improve energy savings, indoor environmental quality, water efficiency, lower CO2 emissions, and stewardship of resources.
According to the USGBC site (usgbc.org/), “LEED provides building owners and operators with the tools they need to have an immediate and measureable impact on their buildings’ performance.” Founded in 1998, the U.S. Green Building council now includes over 14,000 projects in the U.S. and 30 countries.What to look for in a gray water treatment firm:Every gray water project is unique. Before applying for a gray water use permit, look for an environmental solutions or treatment firm that can evaluate your specific site conditions, challenges and long-term objectives. The optimal choice will be a company that can design a complete turnkey program that will meet current as well as future needs.A thorough evaluation of your application will be necessary before gray water can be reused for any landscape irrigation project, or re-utilized in flush toilets and urinals.
Qualifying for LEED Credits:Gray water recovery, treatment and fast cooling water dispenser distribution systems may qualify for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) credits towards your remodel or new project. Look for a company that can help you maximize those credits through high-quality systems that perform as designed.Remember that gray water treatment systems must also meet current building code requirements. Be aware that local building requirements can differ widely in some communities.Maintenance and Monitoring:Your gray water program will likely require an ongoing commitment that includes scheduled maintenance and monitoring to insure your investment in gray water recovery and reutilization performs over the long term.Ongoing Communication:It’s important to maintain an interface and continue to dialogue with local and state governing agencies that approve and promote gray water programs. This will help to improve the quality and efficiency of your gray water program.
Architects and interior designers have been coming up with numerous variations of cabinets and their designs are equally matched Hot and Cold Standing Water Dispenser by different designs in cabinet hardware that complemented their aesthetic presentation to be more attractive to the end-users and other building stakeholders.These designs come in different variations where you could choose from such as a simple big-box manufactured framed cabinet with panel doors to a well crafted cabinet made intricately by men trained in such craftsmanship. Cabinet hardware is designed to be used for two objectives; for decoration and second for functionality.
Cabinet hardware designed for decoration also serve as opening and closing medium for drawers and cabinets aside from its primary purpose of giving decorative value to the cabinet as they are mounted in front of drawers and cabinets and they give an astounding view of the cabinets and drawers that enhances their beauty and attractiveness. There are several types of decorative cabinet hardware such as handle pulls, cup pulls, knobs, back plates, ring, bail and pendant pulls.
The handle pulls as well as the cup pulls are big and are fastened with two screws at both sides and they are solid and sturdy while the bail pulls are put in place with the use of mounting screw and are also solid. Knobs, rings and pendent pulls are all mounted using only one screw while some ring and pendent are designed to be mounted with two mounting screws.In the installation of cabinet hardware, like the cup pull is installed differently from the others since the measurement is center to center and this procedure of measurement is taken starting from the center of one hole going to the center of the other hole before the cup pull is fitted utilizing this approach of measurement.
If you are planning to replace an old cup pull, be sure to check the item that it is exactly of the same size of the old one you are replacing or else you have to refinish the entire cabinet that you are replacing with the cup pull.In this type of measurement using center to center measurement, there are several abbreviations to identify the use of center to center measurement procedures and the most common terms or abbreviations are the C-C,C/C or CTC and ordinarily they use 3″, 31/2″, 96mm and 4″. There are others but are seldom used. There are some architects that prefer using these popular abbreviations and measurements while other designers opt to use the non-regular and seldom used abbreviations and measurements for identification purposes of their individual designs of being different.
The designs of cabinet hardware come in many different shapes, sizes, and colors like oil rubbed bronze cabinet hardware, satin nickel cabinet hardware, mate black cabinet hardware, bronze cabinet hardware, weathered nickel Swedish iron cabinet hardware, black antique cabinet hardware, antique cooper cabinet hardware antique brass cabinet hardware and other different finishes which you can hardly choose from because of their individual appealing design and beauty.The other type of cabinet hardware as to its purpose is the functional hardware which is primarily designed for its function and not for decoration. It is entirely simple and helps you out to reach to the items inside your drawers or cabinets and they are classified as door hinges and drawer hinges which connect the cover of your door and drawer to the enclosed area.
The earliest record of washing machines was in 1691 when a washing machine appeared in an English patent although it’s not known if it was ever actually built. Three other machines are found on record in the 1700s although no information on their actual use can be found.
These were in the forms of a drawing in The Gentleman’s Magazine in England in 1752, Jacob Schaffer in 1967 had a design published and in 1782 a patent for a revolving drum machine was given to Englishman Henry Sidgier. Although technically not a machine the scrub board is credited as being the first washing machine on record dating back to 1797 which was used and can still be found in use today.
In the 1800s the main contributions towards advancing the design of washing machines were James King’s introduction of the first drum type machine in 1851 which looked slightly more like today’s machines. Hamilton Smith got the rotary washing machine patented in 1858 and this was one of over 2000 patents that were recorded by the end of the 1800s. The Cheapest Water Dispenser majority of these never worked with some very odd contraptions being invented one such device was a machine powered by 12 donkeys that could wash a dozen items at a time.
The biggest success was in 1874 when Mrs. Blackstone got the ultimate birthday gift when her husband presented her with a washing machine that he had designed and built himself. Her husband William Blackstone an Indiana corn machine manufacturer found it worked so well that many people wanted to buy it and you started to produce and sell the machine. It was a success and within 5 years he had moved to New York and opened a factory which is still their today. It was made of wood and comprised of a tub to which hot soapy water was added to and in the tub sat a piece of flat wood with pegs attached to it.
The wood was made to move around the tub via some gears and a handle and as it done so the pegs caught the clothes and dragged them about in the water. This is the principle that all today’s machines work on that by moving clothes through hot soapy water dirt is removed. It is widely accepted that electric washing machines were introduced by Alva Fisher in 1906 with his company Fisher producing and selling a lot of these machines. But there was another successful patent granted for an electric machine before his by Louis Goldenberg who worked for ford and this should be the one credited in history although for some reason unknown it wasn’t.
These early electric machines soon had to be modified after a series of fatal accidents with people getting electrocuted. This was because the tub did not have an outer casing and water could easily spill from the tub directly onto the motor or wiring. Most machines were made from metal from 1900 onwards with hand, steam and gasoline powered devices gradually succumbing to electric power.The Bendix Corporation brought in the first automatic front loading machine in 1937 which in design is similar to today’s versions except that it had no internal drum suspension to prevent vibration and it had to be fixed firmly to the floor. General Electric designed the first top loading automatic which also included an agitator unveiling it at the 1947 Louisiana State Fair.