Research paper structure

A research paper is a written work that presents the results of an original research study. It typically includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and conclusion.

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To ace in writing a research paper, the following tips may be helpful:

  • Understand the assignment and its requirements.
  • Choose a topic that is interesting and relevant to the assignment.
  •  Conduct thorough research and gather credible sources.
  • Create an outline to organize your thoughts and ideas.
  • Write a clear and concise introduction, including a thesis statement.
  • Use evidence and examples to support your claims and arguments.
  • Cite sources correctly and consistently throughout the paper.
  • Proofread and edit your work for grammar, punctuation, and clarity.
  • Follow the appropriate format and style guidelines, such as MLA or APA.
  • Be sure to stick to the given deadlines.

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It is also important to keep in mind that writing a research paper is a process and you may need to revise and rewrite multiple times before it is ready for submission.

Structure of research paper

Title page

When creating a title page for a research paper, it is important to include the title of the paper, the names of the authors, and the name of the institution or organization where the research was conducted. The title page should also include the date of submission and any relevant contact information, such as an email address or phone number.


An abstract is a brief summary of a research paper, usually appearing at the beginning of the paper. It should be concise and should not exceed 200-300 words. The purpose of an abstract is to give the reader an overview of the research, including the research question, methods, results, and conclusions.

When writing the abstract, keep in mind that it should be a summary of the key points of the paper, rather than an introduction. Use the past tense and write in a clear manner.

Table of contents

A table of contents is an essential element of a research paper as it serves as a roadmap for the reader, allowing them to quickly locate specific information within the paper. The table of contents typically appears after the abstract and before the introduction of the paper. It is a hierarchical list of the sections and subsections of the paper, along with the page numbers where they can be found.

The table of contents is an important tool for the reader as it provides an overview of the paper’s structure and helps them navigate through the paper quickly and easily. It also serves as an important tool for the researcher, as it helps them to organize their ideas and ensure that all the necessary information is included in the paper.


The introduction of a research paper should provide background information on the topic and explain the research question being addressed. It should also provide a rationale for the research and explain why it is important. The introduction should be clear and concise. The introduction should provide background information and the research question, while the literature review should present the existing research on the topic, including the main findings and gaps in the literature.

Literature review

The literature review is a critical evaluation of the existing literature on a topic. It should provide an overview of the current state of research on the topic, including the main findings and gaps in the literature. The literature review should also identify any inconsistencies or controversies in the literature, and explain how the current research aims to address these issues. The literature review should be well-organized and should be supported by relevant citations. It should not exceed 1000 words.


The methodology section of a research paper describes the procedures used in conducting the study. It should be detailed enough for a reader to understand and replicate the study, but not so detailed that it becomes tedious to read. The methodology should be written in past tense and should include the following elements:

  • Participants: Describe the sample of participants, including their characteristics (e.g. age, gender, education level) and how they were recruited.
  • Materials: List any materials or equipment used in the study, including any standardized tests or survey instruments.
  • Procedure: Describe the steps taken in conducting the study, including any experimental manipulations or interventions.
  • Data analysis: Describe the statistical analyses used to analyze the data and any measures of reliability and validity used to assess the quality of the data.


The results section of a research paper presents the findings of the study. It should be written in past tense and should include the following elements:

  • Summary of findings: Provide a brief overview of the main findings of the study.
  • Statistical analyses: Report the results of any statistical analyses, including p-values, effect sizes, and confidence intervals.


The discussion section of a research paper interprets the results of the study and puts them into context. It should be written in past tense and should include the following elements:

Summary of findings: Summarize the main findings of the study and how they relate to the research question.

Implications: Discuss the implications of the findings for theory, practice, and future research.

Limitations: Acknowledge any limitations of the study and discuss how they may have affected the results.


The conclusion of a research paper is where you summarize the main findings of your study and provide a final perspective on the research problem. It should be brief and clear, and should not introduce new information.

When writing the conclusion, it is important to first restate the research question and main findings. This helps to reiterate the importance of the study and provide a clear link between the research question and the results.

Next, you should provide a brief overview of the main implications of your study. This can include discussing the practical implications for policy or practice, as well as the theoretical implications for future research.

You should also highlight the key contributions of your study to the existing literature. This can include pointing out any novel findings or perspectives, as well as how your study builds upon or challenges previous research.


  • Limitations


In addition, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of your study. This can include limitations in the study design, sample size, or data analysis. Acknowledging these limitations can help to contextualize the findings and indicate areas for future research.


  • Future research


For future research, you should suggest specific directions for further study based on the limitations of your study and the implications of your findings. For example, if your study had a small sample size, future research could focus on a larger sample to increase generalizability.

It is also important to note that in some fields, such as medical research, it is also important to include a discussion on the ethical considerations of the study, and how these were addressed in the research design and implementation.

In summary, a conclusion should restate the research question and main findings, discuss the implications and contributions of the study, acknowledge the limitations and suggest specific directions for future research, and if applicable, address the ethical considerations of the study.

Tables and figures

Writing tables and figures in a research paper is a great way to present data and information in a clear and concise manner. To begin, it is important to choose an appropriate format for the table or figure, such as a bar chart, line graph, or pie chart. Once the format has been chosen, it is important to label the table or figure with a clear and descriptive title, and to provide a legend or caption that explains the data and information being presented.


The appendix of a research paper is used to provide additional information that is not directly relevant to the main text of the paper, but may be of interest to the reader. This can include things like raw data, survey results, or detailed calculations. When including information in the appendix, it is important to label each section or piece of information clearly and to provide a brief explanation of what it is and why it is included.

Final thoughts

It is also important to keep in mind the formatting guidelines of the journal or conference where the paper will be submitted. Many journals have specific guidelines for the formatting of tables and figures, as well as for the overall layout of the paper. It is important to follow these guidelines closely to ensure that the paper is accepted for publication.

In addition, it is important to proofread and revise the paper multiple times before submission to check for any grammatical errors, typos, or other mistakes. It is also a good idea to have other people read and give feedback on the paper, as they may catch errors or suggest improvements that were not noticed during the initial writing process.

Research paper structureultima modifica: 2023-02-04T15:23:42+01:00da ellysa23

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