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Creato da: taichung il 12/01/2011
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Plymouth themes on Ubuntu

Post n°63 pubblicato il 05 Maggio 2019 da taichung

To install a plymouth theme, you can use apt to get one of those ugly themes in the repository, or download it for example from gnomelook.org. Then you need to unpack it in /usr/share/plymouth/themes as root. For example, we've downloaded a theme called "solar". We need to let the system know that this theme is available and we want to use it as default. I won't explain the meaning of all the commands we need, you can look in Internet by yourself. As super user (or root) type in a terminal window:

$ sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/share/plymouth/themes/default.plymouth default.plymouth /usr/share/plymouth/themes/solar/solar.plymouth 100


$ sudo update-alternatives --config default.plymouth

Here you must chose the theme you want (solar in our case)


$ sudo update-initramfs -u

That's it.

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Importare / esportare la lista dei pacchetti installati su Ubuntu e Debian

Post n°62 pubblicato il 20 Maggio 2018 da taichung

Può essere utile avere la lista dei pacchetti installati su di una macchina, per esempio se si deve realizzare un'installazione identica da un'altra parte.

Per avere la lista dei pacchetti in un file:

#dpkg --get-selections | grep -v deinstall > elencopacchetti.txt

Poi si copia tale file sull'altra macchina. Su quest'ultima si danno, come root, i comandi:

#dpkg --set-selections < elencopacchetti.txt


Dall'interfaccia testuale di dselect (che ovviamente deve essere installato prima se non presente), si seleziona la voce Aggiorna pacchetti selezionati 

Va da sè che i repository devono essere gli stessi sulle due macchine, così come ovviamente la versione del sistema operativo.

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Debian Stretch 9.3 + hplip 3.7.11 + HP Laserjet Pro MFP M26nw

Post n°61 pubblicato il 24 Gennaio 2018 da taichung

The current hplip version in Debian 9.3 is oblosete and doesn't support the HP Laserjet Pro MFP M26nw. Hplip 3.7.11 does, but unfortunately installing the package from https://developers.hp.com/hp-linux-imaging-and-printing I'm getting troubles with the dependencies. The most problematic packages are pyqt4 and pyqt4-dbus; the hplip installer requires them, but already since Debian 8.7 (or maybe before), those packages have been renamed to python-qt4 and python-qt4-dbus. It can be that while trying to install hplip 3.7.11 some more dependencies are missing, but you can easily install them in the usual way, through you package manager or apt.

Anyway, after struggling for some days, I've found a very useful post on Launchpad, which has helped me in finding the solution: https://answers.launchpad.net/hplip/+question/452076

First, download hplip-3.17.11.run from https://developers.hp.com/hp-linux-imaging-and-printing

Enter in the folder where you've downloaded it, and make it executable with:

sudo chmod a+x hplip-3.17.11.run

Mind that you should install this package as a normal user, not as root. If there's no such user on your computer, create it and also his home directory, because later the installer will create some files in the home directory of the user, It's not really needed, but it'll avoid the installer to throw out some error. Before everything, uninstall the older version of hplip, if it's installed (btw, the new installer should also ask you about that).

Once done, run the installer:


The installer will try to go on as long as possible, asking you different questions about the version of your operating system, dependencies and so on. Try to go on as long as possible, to get an idea about what to expect later, and especially try to solve the other missed dependencies, which could be related to python packages, cups, etc.

p, li { white-space: pre-wrap; }

When the installer will stop, complaining that pyqt4 and pyqt4-dbus are missing and can't be installed, it'll be your turn!

The installer has created a folder, hplip-3.17.11. You now have to edit the file hplip-3.17.11/installer/core_install.py with your favorite editor (vi, nano, emacs, leafpad...)

In that file locate the following:

'pyqt4-dbus' : (True, ['gui_qt4'], QT4DBUS_STR, self.check_pyqt4_dbus, DEPENDENCY_RUN_TIME,'4.0','FUNC#get_pyQt4_version', GENERALDEP),

and change it into:

'python-qt4-dbus' : (True, ['gui_qt4'], QT4DBUS_STR, self.check_pyqt4_dbus, DEPENDENCY_RUN_TIME,'4.0','FUNC#get_pyQt4_version', GENERALDEP),

Note that pyqt4-dbus must be changed in python-qt4-dbus.

Then locate:

 'pyqt4': (True, ['gui_qt4'], QT4_STR, self.check_pyqt4, DEPENDENCY_RUN_TIME,'4.0','FUNC#get_pyQt4_version', GENERALDEP), # PyQt 4.x )

and change it into:

'python-qt4': (True, ['gui_qt4'], QT4_STR, self.check_pyqt4, DEPENDENCY_RUN_TIME,'4.0','FUNC#get_pyQt4_version', GENERALDEP), # PyQt 4.x )

Here we have changed pyqt4 into python-qt4.

Save the file and close it.

Now you have to edit the file hplip-3.17.11/installer/distros.dat to add the compatibility with Debian 9.3.

Around line 4717 you'll find the following:

[debian] index=2 versions=7.0,7.1,7.2,7.3,7.4,7.5,7.6,7.7,7.8,7.9,8.0,8.1,8.2,8.3,8.4,8.5,8.6,8.7,8.8,9.1


You need to add the version's number 9.3 (and 9.2) at the end of that line which begins with the word version as the following:


Once done, around line 6102 of the same file, there's the configuration section for the last supported Debian version, code number 9.1. Basically you have to copy it and change the code number from 9.1 to 9.3 for all the recurrencies. To be clean, you should add 2 sections, one for Debian 9.2 and one for Debian 9.3, where the only difference is the code number of the version. I personally didn't add the section for 9.2, the installer has shown an error about that but then went on. Let's see how to do:

at the end of the section for Debian 9.1, around line 6102, as previously written, add the following text:

[debian:9.3] code_name=Stretch supported=1 scan_supported=1 fax_supported=1 pcard_supported=1 network_supported=1 parallel_supported=1 usb_supported=1 packaged_version=3.17.10 release_date=22/07/2017 notes=NOTE: Disable the CD Sources in your apt sources.list or the install will fail and hang. ppd_install=drv udev_mode_fix=1 ppd_dir=/usr/share/ppd/HP fix_ppd_symlink=0 drv_dir=/usr/share/cups/drv/HP ui_toolkit=qt5 native_cups=1 policykit=0 # This libdir_path will be used only for 64 bit machine. libdir_path=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu [debian:9.3:cups] packages=cups,libcups2 [debian:9.3:cups-devel] packages=libcups2-dev,cups-bsd,cups-client [debian:9.3:gcc] packages=g++ [debian:9.3:gs] packages=ghostscript,ghostscript-cups,ghostscript-x [debian:9.3:libcrypto] packages=libssl-dev [debian:9.3:libjpeg] packages=libjpeg62-turbo-dev [debian:9.3:libnetsnmp-devel] packages=libsnmp-dev,snmp [debian:9.3:libpthread] packages=libc6 [debian:9.3:libtool] packages=libtool,libtool-bin [debian:9.3:libusb] packages=libusb-1.0.0-dev [debian:9.3:make] packages=make [debian:9.3:pil] packages=python-imaging [debian:9.3:ppdev] packages= commands=su -c "modprobe ppdev",su -c cp -f /etc/modules /etc/modules.hplip,echo ppdev | su -c tee -a /etc/modules [debian:9.3:pyqt] packages=python-qt3 [debian:9.3:python-devel] packages=python-dev [debian:9.3:pyqt4] packages=python-qt4 [debian:9.3:pyqt4-dbus] packages=python-qt4-dbus [debian:9.3:python23] packages=python [debian:9.3:python2X] packages=python [debian:9.3:reportlab] packages=python-reportlab [debian:9.3:sane] packages=sane [debian:9.3:sane-devel] packages=libsane-dev [debian:9.3:scanimage] packages=sane-utils [debian:9.3:xsane] packages=xsane [debian:9.3:cups-ddk] packages= [debian:9.3:python-dbus] packages=python-dbus,python-gobject [debian:9.3:dbus] packages=libdbus-1-dev [debian:9.3:python-ctypes] packages=python-ctypes [debian:9.3:cups-image] packages=libcupsimage2,libcupsimage2-dev [debian:9.3:policykit] packages=policykit-1,policykit-1-gnome [debian:9.3:python-notify] packages=python-notify [debian:9.3:network] packages=wget [debian:9.3:avahi-utils] packages=avahi-utils [debian:9.3:gtk] packages=libcanberra-gtk-module [debian:9.3:python3-notify2] packages=python3-notify2 [debian:9.3:python3-pyqt4-dbus] packages=python3-dbus.mainloop.qt [debian:9.3:python3-pyqt4] packages=python3-pyqt4,gtk2-engines-pixbuf [debian:9.3:python3-dbus] packages=python3-dbus,python3-gi [debian:9.3:python3-xml] packages=python3-lxml [debian:9.3:python3-devel] packages=python3-dev [debian:9.3:python3-pil] packages=python3-pil [debian:9.3:python3-reportlab] packages=python3-reportlab [debian:9.3:python3-pyqt5-dbus] packages=python3-dbus.mainloop.pyqt5 [debian:9.3:python3-pyqt5] packages=python3-pyqt5,gtk2-engines-pixbuf [debian:9.3:pyqt5] packages=gtk2-engines-pixbuf,python-pyqt5 [debian:9.3:pyqt5-dbus] packages=python-dbus.mainloop.pyqt5 [debian:9.3:automake] packages=automake1.11 [debian:9.3:epm] packages=epm

That's it! Save the file, close it and then re-run the installer ./hplip-3.17.11.run which now should work. Once finished, you'll eventually need to reboot and run again hp-setup to install the printer, if it can't be detected at the first try.
Good luck!
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Personalizzare i colori di testo e sfondo su Firefox (anche Quantum)

Post n°60 pubblicato il 29 Novembre 2017 da taichung

Su Linux utilizzare dei temi del desktop con colori scuri causa spesso problemi con il browser Firefox. Nel tempo ho provato ad adottare dei temi di colori per il mio desktop KDE, e relativa controparte gtk, che non andassero a cozzare coi colori di Firefox, ma senza risultato. Per avendo tentato di regolare le impostazioni all'interno del browser, il risultato non cambiava: area per l'immissione di testo in grigio scuro e testo nero, oppure sfondo bianco e testo in grigio chiarissimo...  Per fortuna c'è un sistema che funziona. Bisogna impostare i colori all'interno di un file css (foglio di stile) appositamente creato. La soluzione l'ho trovata su https://superuser.com/questions/632980/firefox-input-field-color

in pratica si deve creare ed editare un file all'interno della propria home directory:


dove YOUR-PROFILE è ovviamente la cartella che contiene il profilo di Firefox in uso, e che solitamente ha un nome strambo, che comunque potete trovare all'interno del file  ~/.mozilla/firefox/profiles.ini

Comunque, in ~/.mozilla/firefox/YOUR-PROFILE/chrome/userContent.css dovete scrivere quanto segue, per ottenere testo di colore nero e sfondo bianco:

input, textarea {
   color:#000 !important;
   background-color:#fff !important;

In questo modo qualunque altro foglio di stile con tali istruzioni verrà sovrascritto dal vostro. Ovviamente nulla vieta di cambiare i colori a vostro piacimento od aggiungere altri stili.

Nelle impostazioni dei colori di Firefox, io ho impostato testo di colore nero e sfondo bianco, tolto il flag all'opzione Usa i colori di sistema, e sotto Sostituisci i colori specificati nella pagina con quelli selezionati ho scelto l'opzione "mai"

Salvate e riavviate Firefox affinché le modifiche abbiano effetto.

Può essere che su alcuni siti ora vi ritroviate qualche oggetto (pulsanti, aree di testo) bianco anziché colorato, ma ne avrete sicuramente guadagnato in usabilità e leggibilità.

PS: le suddette impostazioni si riflettono anche sugli editor WYSIWYG, nel caso li usiate...

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Exiftool per cancellare i metadati delle fotografie

Post n°59 pubblicato il 10 Settembre 2017 da taichung

Exiftool è disponibile per tutte le maggiori distribuzioni Linux.

Esso permette di rimuovere uono o più metadati di una fotografia, come la data, li tipo di apparecchio fotografico, la geolocalizzazione, l'uso del flash, l'apertura focale ecc.

Per cancellarli tutti si usa il comando:

# exiftool -all= /nomedirectory/nomefile.jpg

Ovviamente si può utilizzare anche con immagini di formato diverso, png, raw, ecc.

Di seguito alcuni esempi tratti dal sito http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/examples.html :

0) Extract information from a file

exiftool a.jpg

A basic command to extract all metadata from a file named a.jpg.


1) Basic write example

exiftool -artist=me a.jpg

Writes Artist tag to a.jpg. Since no group is specified, EXIF:Artist will be written and all other existing Artist tags will be updated with the new value ("me").


2) Write multiple files

exiftool -artist=me a.jpg b.jpg c.jpg

Writes Artist tag to three image files.


3) Write to all files in a directory

exiftool -artist=me /tmp/images

Writes Artist tag to all files in directory /tmp/images.


4) Write multiple tags

exiftool -artist="Phil Harvey" -copyright="2011 Phil Harvey" a.jpg

Writes two tags to a.jpg.


5) Extracting duplicate tags

exiftool -a -u -g1 a.jpg

Print all meta information in an image, including duplicate and unknown tags, sorted by group (for family 1).


6) undefined

exiftool -common dir

Print common meta information for all images in dir.


7) undefined

exiftool -T -createdate -aperture -shutterspeed -iso DIR > out.txt

List meta information in tab-delimited column form for all images in directory DIR to an output text file named "out.txt".


8) undefined

exiftool -s -ImageSize -ExposureTime b.jpg

Print ImageSize and ExposureTime tag names and values.


9) undefined

exiftool -l -canon c.jpg d.jpg

Print standard Canon information from two image files.


10) undefined

exiftool -r -w .txt -common pictures

Recursively extract common meta information from files in C directory, writing text output into files with the same names but with a C<.txt> extension.


11) undefined

exiftool -b -ThumbnailImage image.jpg > thumbnail.jpg

Save thumbnail image from C to a file called C.


12) undefined

exiftool -b -JpgFromRaw -w _JFR.JPG -ext CRW -r .

Recursively extract JPG image from all Canon CRW files in the current directory, adding C<_JFR.JPG> for the name of the output JPG files.


13) undefined

exiftool -d "%r %a, %B %e, %Y" -DateTimeOriginal -S -s *.jpg

Print formatted date/time for all JPG files in the current directory.


14) undefined

exiftool -IFD1:XResolution -IFD1:YResolution image.jpg

Extract image resolution from EXIF IFD1 information (thumbnail image IFD).


15) undefined

exiftool "-*resolution*" image.jpg

Extract all tags with names containing the word "Resolution" from an image.


16) undefined

exiftool -xmp:author:all -a image.jpg

Extract all author-related XMP information from an image.


17) undefined

exiftool -xmp -b a.jpg > out.xmp

Extract complete XMP data record intact from a.jpg and write it to out.xmp using the special XMP tag (see the Extra Tags).


19) undefined

exiftool -p '$filename has date $dateTimeOriginal' -q -f dir

Print one line of output containing the file name and DateTimeOriginal for each image in directory dir.


21) undefined

exiftool -ee -p '$gpslatitude, $gpslongitude, $gpstimestamp' a.m2ts

Extract all GPS positions from an AVCHD video.


22) undefined

exiftool -icc_profile -b -w icc image.jpg

Save complete ICC_Profile from an image to an output file with the same name and an extension of C<.icc>.


23) undefined


exiftool -htmldump -w tmp/%f_%e.html t/images

Generate HTML pages from a hex dump of EXIF information in all images from the C directory. The output HTML files are written to the C directory (which is created if it didn't exist), with names of the form "FILENAME_EXT.html"

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